### Porosity and Bulk Density of Sedimentary Rocks

bulk volume may at times be less than true values of bulk volume is shown by the fact that the computed apparent porosity occasionally exceeds the computed total porosity where bulk volume is obtained by mercury displacement, and where there is no evidence that adsorp tive effects have resulted in erroneously large determinations of pore volume. POROSITY AND BULK DENSITY OF .

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### Soil SubGrade Modulus StructurePoint

Typical values of subgrade modulus range between 100400 pci for coarse grained soils and 25150 pci for fine grained soils.

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### Table T1. Parameter used in the elastic models.

Pore water bulk modulus (K water x 10 9 Pa) : Hydrate bulk modulus (K h x 10 9 Pa) : Hydrate shear modulus µ h x 10 9 Pa) : Free gas bulk modulus (K gas x 10 9 Pa) ...

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### WHAT ARE THE VALUES OF MODULUS OF .

13/02/2015· Poisson''s Ratio of Rock. Poisson''s ratio measures the ratio of lateral strain to axial strain at linearly elastic region. For most rocks, the value of Poisson''s ratio ranges in between to Typical values of modulus of elasticity of some common are given in the table below. Values of Poisson''s Ratio for Some Common Rocks

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### Estimating in situ rock mass strength and elastic .

Variations in rock mass elastic modulus are qualitatively similar (values vary from 1 to 2 GPa up to the elastic modulus of the intact rock, 40 GPa). Our study highlights that macrofractures and joints reduce rock mass strength and should be considered when assessing the rock mass for well stability and rock mass deformation due to stress redistribution in the reservoir. We present a case ...

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### Some Useful Numbers

Bulk modulus (K) Granite 50 GPa Shale 10 GPa Limestone 65 GPa Chalk 9 GPa Sandstone GPa . 4 Modulus of rigidity ( ) Granite 24 GPa Shale GPa Limestone 24 GPa Chalk GPa Sandstone GPa Steel 80 GPa Wood 4 GPa Glass 19 GPa Lithostatic pressure gradient MPa/km (for = ) Hydrostatic pressure gradient MPa/km Unconfined compressive strength Granite 100250 MPa .

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### Rock mass properties Rocscience Inc.

deformation modulus of rock masses was made by Hoek and Diederichs (2006). This chapter presents the most recent version of the HoekBrown criterion in a form that has been found practical in the field and that appears to provide the most reliable set of results for use as input for methods of analysis in current use in rock engineering. Generalised HoekBrown criterion The Generalised Hoek ...

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### (PDF) Bulk Modulus ResearchGate

Calculated Values of Elastic Modulus ... was to obtain bulk modulus of the upper arm under relax and controlled contraction that was 25% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). View. Show ...

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### Modulus of Subgrade reaction Which one to use

The modulus of subgrade reaction is an often misunderstood and misused concept for the thickness design of slabsonground. Terzaghi in 1955 (Ref. 1, P. 300) attributed this confusion to the initial work by Hayashi in 1921 (Ref. 2), who stated that the subgrade reaction should be determined by a load test but failed to mention that the tested results depend on the size of the loaded area ...

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### Rock Mechanics

• 10% of compressive strength typical (Table ) ! Horizontal rock beams can be dangerous because of the weak tensile strength – rock unit must be homogeneous and composed of resistant minerals ! Arches overcome this by transferring tensile stress to compressive stresses around the arch 30 Tensile Strength! 31 – Properties are determined in hand samples and in the field – Rocks are al

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### 13 Earth Materials UCL

Typical E Rubber 7 MPa Normally consolidated clays ~ 4 GPa Boulder clay (oversolidated) 10 ~20 GPa Concrete 20 GPa Sandstone 20 GPa Granite 50 GPa Basalt 60 GPa Steel 205 GPa Diamond 1,200 GPa Young''s Modulus (initial tangent) of Materials

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### bulk modulus equpment used in mining | Ore plant ...

20/06/2013· typical bulk modulus values of rock. . Mining Equipment; Mining Knowledge; Mining plant; Ore classification; Ore Crushers; Solutions; South Africa Suppliers. . modulus of elasticity of basalt rock. Mining crushers mainly . The bulk modulus of elasticity of basalt is between /cm3 and 3 . design and construction of equipment used for production of . Large Modulus Gear used for ...

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### The Methodology for the Young Modulus .

01/01/2017· For studied rocks the lowest proportion amounts: for coal, for claystone, for mudstone and for sandstone (Fig. 11). The difference between average and tangent modulus amounts maximally to for claystone and minimally to for mudstone. 3.

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### Rock Physics for the Rest of Us – An Informal .

Gassman''s (1951) equations provide a way to calculate the bulk modulus of a fluidsaturated porous medium using the known bulk moduli of the solid matrix, of the frame, and of the pore fluid. For a rock, the solid matrix consists of the rockforming minerals, the frame refers to the rock sample with empty pores (dry rock), and the pore fluid can be a gas, oil, water, or a mixture. The ...

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### Dry Rock Sand Bulk Modulus

Pore Fluid and Elastic Properties of Rock. Bulk Modulus of Dry Rock Bulk Modulus of Pore Fluid Porosity G Sat = G Dry Shear Modulus of Rock w/Fluid Dry Rock K Sat = K s A soft sand sample of 35% porosity The dryrock density is g/cm 3 Fluid bulk modulus GPa; density 1 g/cm3 10 20 30 Velocity (km/s)Онлайнзапрос

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF ROCKS AND ROCK MASSES 1 ...

macrocracking takes place as the rock becomes more deteriorated and crack coalescence takes place. Various authors have compiled the values of the unconfined compressive strength for different rock types (Balmer, 1953; Johnson and DeGraff, 1988; Hatheway and Kiersch, 1989; Goodman, 1989; etc..). Typical values are given in Tables 1 and 2.

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### Estimating in situ rock mass strength and elastic .

Variations in rock mass elastic modulus are qualitatively similar (values vary from 1 to 2 GPa up to the elastic modulus of the intact rock, 40 GPa). Our study highlights that macrofractures and joints reduce rock mass strength and should be considered when assessing the rock mass for well stability and rock mass deformation due to stress redistribution in the reservoir. We present a case study to .

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### Chapter 5 Engineering Properties of Soil and Rock

which may result in multiple values of the property within the stratum and therefore multiple ESU''s within the stratum. Since ESU''s are defined as zones of soil or rock with consistent engineering properties, properties of ESU''s shall not be averaged together, except as noted in the following sentences. For design methods that require a very simplified stratigraphy be used, to create the ...

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### Research Article Characterization of Rock Mechanical ...

Calculation of Dynamic Modulus. Dynamic Young s modulus and Poisson s ratio can be calculated using longitudinal slowness, transverse slowness, and bulk density data. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 20 40 60 80 Compressive strength (MPa) Young s modulus (GPa) Sandstone Mudstone y = + R = y = + R =

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### THE DEFORMATION MODULUS OF ROCK MASSES .

The modulus value increases with the increase in applied pressure during the measurement. This is due to the closure of cracks or joints in the rock mass under stress, making the material stiffer at higher stresses. The first cycle should never be considered from the determination of the modulus values as most of the closure of

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### DEFORMABILITY PROPERTIES OF ROCKS AND ROCK MASSES 1 ...

Table 2. Typical values of Poisson''s ratios for nine common rock types (after Johnson and Degraff, 1988). Linearity in the material behavior in uniaxial compression will also be reflected in its response to pure shear and hydrostatic compression. For instance, if a increment in shear stress dJ is

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### Empirical Estimation of Rock Mass Modulus

Empirical estimation of rock mass modulus E. Hoek and Diederichs Based on an analysis of an extensive data set from China and Taiwan the authors have proposed two new equations for empirical estimates of the deformation modulus of rock masses. These estimates are based on the Geological Strength Index (GSI), the deformation modulus of the intact rock (E i) and the rock mass damage .

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### A TUTORIAL ON GASSMANN CHAP

Gassmann''s equations relate the bulk modulus of a rock to its pore, frame, and fluid properties. The bulk modulus of a saturated rock is given by the low frequency Gassmann theory (Gassmann, 1951) as A Tutorial on Gassmann Fluid Substitution: Formulation, Algorithm and Matlab Code Dhananjay Kumar Chevron Energy Technology Company, California (3) where Ksat, Kframe, K matrix, and Kfl are the ...

WhatsAppعرض المزيد### Crain''s Petrophysical Handbook | Elastic Constants .

Bulk Modulus is the hydrostatic pressure divided by volumetric strain. For rock with porosity: 1: Kb = KS5 * DENS *(1 / (DTC^2) 4/3 * (1 / (DTS^2))) For rock with no porosity: 2: DENSMA = (DENS PHIt * DENSW) / (1 PHIt) 3: DTCMA = (DTC PHIt * DTW) / (1 PHIt)

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